Background  the Arethusa class: By the end of the 1920s, Royal Navy policy regarding cruisers had solidified around two distinct types; large cruisers for trade
protection on distant overseas stations, and smaller cruisers for working with the battle fleet. The light cruisers of the
Elizabethan and E classes fell into the large
cruiser category, along with the new
County class heavy cruisers and Leander class light cruisers.  For fleet work, the Royal Navy was well served by the 35
surviving units of the
C and D classes.  Built with the benefit of war experience and displacing between 3,700 and 4,650 tons each, these ships were the ideal size for
fleet work with low silhouettes, excellent manoeuvrability, and quick acceleration to top speed.   

In 1929, with the design work completed on the light cruisers of the
Leander class, attention shifted to a replacement for the C and D classes. These ships had all
completed between 1914 and 1922 and faced block obsolescence by the mid-1930s. The Washington Treaty of 1922 had placed a fixed upper limit on the total tonnage
available for cruisers and the new
County and Leander classes had eaten heavily into that upper limit. At 7,200 tons displacement, the Leander class could not be built
in large enough numbers to replace all the
C and D class ships.  It was also felt that they were too large for fleet work and did not have the manoeuvrability required for
working with destroyer flotillas. (Editor's Note - It was the London Treaty of 1930 that established a limit on total cruiser tonnage. The Washington Treaty of 1922
established maximum individual cruiser size but had no quantity cap for number of cruisers that could be built.)
A new fleet cruiser of reduced displacement would allow more to be built within the tonnage limit and would be cheaper than the Leanders.  The lower cost would be
welcome by the government of the day which was very interested in reducing the naval estimates.  For these reasons, a requirement for a new light cruiser capable of
working with the fleet and displacing less than 6,000 tons was given to the Director of Naval Construction in early 1929. By 1931, the new design had solidified into a
ship of 5,000 tons with 3 twin 6 turrets, 2 triple 21 torpedo tube mounts, a catapult, and a speed of 31 knots.  This was met with considerable resistance from the
government due to the world-wide economic downturn and approval was not given. The non-approval turned out to be a blessing in disguise.  The design had been
badly cramped with minimal accommodation standards.  Given the Royal Navy's world-wide commitments, habitability was a major concern.   

The Admiralty was also able to look at adopting the new unit system for machinery.  Traditional power plants grouped multiple boiler and engine rooms in consecutive
compartments; boiler room, boiler room, engine room, and engine room.  This had the advantage of reducing the number of funnels and saving space as all the boilers
were grouped together, but was very vulnerable to damage.   

A hit that would damage two consecutive compartments would leave the ship dead in the water, without boilers or without engines.  The unit system alternated the
boiler and engine rooms in consecutive compartments; boiler room, engine room, boiler room, engine room.  A hit that would damage two consecutive compartments
would still leave the other ones capable of moving the ship and providing power.  The
Leander class with their one funnel used the traditional power plant; the new
Arethusa class with their 2 funnels used the unit system. By adding 450 tons to the design, both the unit system and improved accommodation could be incorporated.   
This new design was submitted to government in February 1932 and was approved by the Treasury.  The
Arethusa class was born.  
By reducing the number of the Leander class ships to 9 instead of the 10 planned, enough tonnage was left over to build at least 5 of the new Arethusa class.  After the
first two ships were ordered in 1931 and 1932, it was hoped to be able to order 3 each in 1933 and 1934 for a total of 8. In 1933 it was discovered that the Japanese
were building very large light cruisers armed with 15-6 guns, the
Mogami class.  This caused a dramatic revision of planned cruiser construction by both the Royal and
US Navies which responded to the new Japanese ships with the
Town and Brooklyn classes respectively.  Construction of the Arethusa class was halted at four ships
and the tonnage allocated to the much larger
Town class.   

The following ships were built:
Arethusa        ordered 1931        completed 28 May 1935
Galatea                ordered 1932        completed 25 August 1935
Penelope        ordered 1933        completed 13 November 1936
Aurora                ordered 1934        completed 12 November 1937

The new ships were 506 feet overall with a displacement of 5,200 tons.  Armament consisted of six 6 guns in twin turrets, 2 forward and one aft.  Four 4 single HA
guns and 2 0.5 quad machine guns made up the anti-aircraft armament.  Two triple 21 torpedo tubes mounts were also carried. The unit system of machinery resulted in
two widely separated funnels.  A quadruple screw arrangement drove the ships at 32 knots at 64,000 SHP. For surface targeting, a Mk IV director was installed on the
bridge.  A high angle director for AA fire was fitted directly behind and above the Mk IV director.    

The armour scheme consisted of a 2 belt abreast the engineering spaces with a 1 deck and transverse bulkheads at the ends.  A 2 platform deck covered the magazines
which also had 3 longitudinal bulkheads fitted abreast.  This scheme was deemed sufficient to deal with 6 gun fire. Extensive use was made of welding to reduce
weight. The first 3 completed with a catapult and seaplane between the two funnels.  Due to the small space available, the 46 foot lightweight catapult was chosen
which limited the types of aircraft that could be carried.  A crane was positioned forward of the catapult for handling the aircraft.  Aurora was completed as a flagship
for a Commodore of Destroyers and never carried a catapult but was fitted with the crane; an extra deckhouse for the Commodore and staff was installed in place of the

In keeping with tradition, the ships names reflected early Greek and Roman classical themes:  
Arethusa        A Greek sea nymph changed by Artemis into a fountain
Galatea                Greek statue carved by Pygmalion which came to life after he fell in love with it
Penelope        Greek wife of Odysseus who remained faithful for 20 years while he was gone during the Trojan Wars.
Aurora                Roman God of the Dawn
On completion in 1935, Arethusa was found to be 150 tons underweight. This allowed for the fitting of 4 twin 4 HA guns and an associated crew shelter instead of the
single guns as designed.  
Penelope and Aurora were modified while building to incorporate the new guns.  They also shipped an additional high angle director at the aft
end of the superstructure enabling them to engage two aircraft targets at the same time.  Arethusa and Galatea received their twin 4 guns during subsequent refits after
the outbreak of war.
Arethusa and Galatea completed with a derrick on the starboard side of the rear funnel to handle a spare aircraft to be stored on the after
deckhouse.  Once in service, this arrangement proved impractical and
Penelope completed without it.  It was also removed from Arethusa and Galatea.  Aurora, as
noted earlier, never carried a catapult and did not have the extra derrick. The ships proved very popular in service, having all the desirable characteristics for fleet work
coupled with the acceleration of a destroyer.  Because they were so new, few modifications were made to the ships prior to the war. The catapult was removed from
the first 3 ships by July 1941, being replaced with 2 quad pom-pom mounts.  
Aurora had her quad pom-poms fitted by June 1940.  Subsequent upgrades were limited
to additional AA weapons (both
Arethusa and Aurora were fitted with UP mounts at one point), various types of radar, and tripod masts.   

All four ships served in home waters and in the Mediterranean where they saw extensive service, accumulating 23 battle honours between them.  Always in the thick of
the action, they collectively became the most famous of all the Royal Navy cruisers that fought in WWII.
Arethusa participated in the Norwegian campaign along with
patrol duty in the North Sea and North Atlantic.  She operated with Force H and was present during the bombardment of the French fleet at Mers el Kebir in July
1940.  Operating in support of Malta convoys and occasionally running supplies to the island herself, she returned to home waters to take part in the Lofoten raid in
December 1941.  Back in the Mediterranean she was badly damaged by an aerial torpedo in November 1942.  Repairs took until December 1943 and were mostly
carried out in Charleston, South Carolina.  She was part of the bombardment force for D-Day in June 1944.  She was sold for scrap in 1950.
Galatea served with the
Home Fleet, taking part in the Norwegian campaign and in the evacuation of troops from France.  In July 1941 she was transferred to the Mediterranean and became
part of Force K operating from Malta.  She was torpedoed and sunk by
U-577 off Alexandria on 15 December 1941. Penelope and Aurora served as part of the
famous Malta striking force, Force K, from October 21, 1941 until both were mined on December 19, 1941 in the disaster off Tripoli which also resulted in the loss of
HMS Neptune and HMS Kandahar.  During subsequent repairs at Malta, Penelope came under heavy and frequent air attack, being so badly riddled with shrapnel
holes that she won the nickname
HMS Pepperpot.  Adopted by the City of Blackpool, Penelope went on to greater fame during the Battle of Sirte in March 1942,
coming under fire from the Italian battleship
Littorio.  She also sailed in support of many Malta convoys.  Penelope was torpedoed and sunk by U-410 off Anzio 18
February 1944.  

Aurora served in the Norwegian campaign, carrying out various shore bombardments and troop movements.  She participated in the Bismarck chase as an escort to
HMS Victorious and sank the German supply ship Belchen off Greenland and the minelayer Bremse off Norway.  Prior to transfer to the Mediterranean she also
carried out many patrols in the Arctic Ocean and covered landings at Spitzbergen. After being mined on December 19, 1941,
Aurora went into dock at Malta for
repairs from January to February 1942, leaving for home on March 18.  From May to June 1942 she was under major repair at Liverpool where tripod masts were
fitted. She would also be fitted with a Type 273 radar lantern forward of the bridge by 1945.
Aurora supported the landings in North Africa during Operation Torch,
destroying 3 Vichy French destroyers and was assigned to Force Q to intercept German shipping in the central Mediterranean as the North African campaign wound
down.  She provided shore bombardment for the Sicily landings and at Salerno.  Taking part in naval operations in the Aegean in October 1943 she was hit by a 1,000
lb bomb and suffered heavy damage to the superstructure.
Aurora took part in the invasion of Southern France in the gunfire support role.  She then saw out the war
taking part in the invasion of several Greek islands. She was sold to Nationalist China in November 1945, being handed over and renamed
Chungking on May 19, 1948
at Portsmouth after a further refit.  With her Chinese crew she sailed for her new home and arrived in Nanjing in August 1948, where she immediately saw action
against the Communists.  Her service with her new owners was destined to be short-lived as her crew mutinied on February 25, 1949 and handed her over to the
Communists.  Renamed
Tchounking, she was scuttled after heavy air attacks in the port of Huludao, Northern China on March 20, 1949. Salvaged in 1951, the hulk
was stripped by the Russian salvors.  She was given the new name
Hsuang He but this was later changed to Pei Ching.  She remained in use as a barracks ships
under the name
Kuang Chou until scrapped in the 1990s.   
The Aurora Kit: This kit features Aurora as she appeared in 1945 with all her war time modifications in place.  Packaging: The kit comes in a well-constructed
box featuring a painting of
HMS Aurora entering Malta wearing an Admiralty Standard camouflage scheme. Inside the main box can be found 2 smaller see-through
boxes; one containing the two sprues for the masts and the other the main superstructure pieces.  The other sprues are individually sealed in plastic bags.  There is
also a large full colour glossy card featuring the box art on one side and a ships history with general characteristics on the reverse. The kit comprises 332 parts on 28
sprues with a further 81 photo-etch pieces.   

Hull: The one piece hull scales out perfectly to the actual length of 506 feet.  A lower hull and a waterline base plate are supplied giving the modeller the option to
build either a full hull or a waterline version.  There are no stands included so those wishing to build the full hull version will need to plan ahead for an arrangement to
display the completed model. The lower hull itself has finely molded bilge keels and the lower half of the armour belt.  Rudder, propellers, and shafts are included as
separate pieces.  It has raised locating points enabling an accurate fit to the upper hull. The pronounced bow knuckle is in the correct position, starting just under the
anchor hawse pipe and terminating just aft of B barbette.  It is a perfect rendition of this distinctive feature, following the contour of the upper deck, curving slightly
upwards under the anchor hawse. There are also raised strakes capturing the line of hull plating from the bow back to the armour belt amidships and from the
armour belt aft to the stern.  It is slightly exaggerated in this scale and could be sanded down to be less conspicuous, but I find it so delicately executed that it would
be a shame to remove it.  The armour belt itself is exactly correct for dimensions and hull placement.  The portholes all feature eyebrows and the anchor hawse pipe
is very clearly defined.  The hull also features bollards, fairleads, and ladder rungs. A weight is included to give the completed hull some heft.   

Decks: The main decks are in two pieces: the foredeck back to the focsle break, and the much longer after deck.  Both feature amazing levels of detail with
individual deck planks, bollards, capstans, boat chocks, anchor chains, hatches and raised edges for fitting the superstructure parts.  The main deck forward features
a raised non-skid pattern.  The breakwater itself is a separate piece.  Both deck pieces drop right into place on the main hull in an impressive display of precision fit.   

Superstructure: The seven main superstructure parts are in a separate box and are all individual pieces that do not require cutting from sprues, a great feature
which will prevent any damage from sprue cutters and the like.  They all feature immense detail on every face:  hatches, handrails, deck fittings, slots for fitting other
pieces.  The bridge has a separate air deflector; 22 pieces go on the top deck which also features a raised wooden grating.  This is quite amazing when it is
considered that the piece is only 12mm x 19mm (3/8 x 1/2) in size! The rest of the superstructure parts are attached to sprues. The funnels are single pieces with
engraved lines, open tops, and steam pipes.  The fore funnel was taller than the after one, and the after one was cut down during the war as a weight saving
measure.  This is reflected in the kit as there are 3 funnels supplied, it can be assumed that a future release will make use of the taller after funnel.   

Weapons: The 6 gun turrets feature plenty of detail on all four sides and the top including rivets and the doors between the gun barrels used when the turret was in
local control.  They are in two pieces with separate gun barrels.  An extra turret base and 2 gun barrels are included.  Each twin 4 gun is composed of three pieces,
with plenty of detail on the sides and top of the shields as well. The quad pompoms consist of 3 pieces and have plenty of detail on the actual gun platform. The
single 20mm guns are mounts are extraordinary, with gun sights and very fine barrels. The twin 20mm are in two pieces, barrels and the actual mount. The torpedo
tubes are things of beauty with plenty of detail and hollowed out ends allowing torpedoes to be inserted if the modeller wishes. Torpedoes would have to be scratch

Boats and fittings: There are 3 open boats and 4 motor launches, each one features deck planks; the 3 largest launches have separate cabins.  There are many
smaller fittings, every piece of which is incredibly detailed.  The ready use ammo lockers have lids and doors, fresh air intakes are hollowed out, the deck winches
have detailed motors, the life rafts are detailed both top and bottom, the davits are extremely thin, the High Angle directors are hollow at the top, and there is a depth
charge rack for the quarterdeck.  The paravanes are not solid at the tips; they feature very tiny molded lines instead. The large aircraft crane consists of 4 parts, the
boom can be replaced with the photo-etch part if desired. Types 281, 284, and 285 radars are included, along with the Type 273 radar lantern on a platform in front
of the bridge.  There are photo etch versions of the Type 281 and 285. Photo-etch railings are supplied pre-cut to the correct lengths with very clear instructions on
where each piece is to be placed. Most of the sprues carrying the smaller fittings are the same ones that are found in the Flyhawk
Naiad kit.  This is a welcome level
of standardization that most likely makes kit production very cost effective for Flyhawk.  
Masts: The masts and tripod supports come on their own sprues and are packaged separately in their own box.  They are extremely thin and can be used as is without
resorting to replacements made from wire.  Aerials for the Type 281 masthead radar are included along with photo-etch replacements.
Decals: As Royal Navy cruisers
did not carry pennant numbers as a rule, the decals are very minimal consisting solely of 4 White Ensigns.
Photo-Etch: A very comprehensive photo-etch sheet with
its own two-sided instruction sheet is also included with all the railings, ladders, and lattice deck supports needed for the kit.  It also contains anchor chain, Type 281
and 285 radars, detailing for the masts, and a boom for the crane.
Instructions: The instructions come on a large, double sided full colour page featuring 9
sub-assemblies.  They are very clear and comprehensive and also feature a drawing showing all the sprues and parts included. Colour coding is used throughout to
assist with placement of smaller parts; this is a very good feature which takes out a lot of guess work.
Colour scheme: There is a full colour diagram of the
camouflage scheme carried by Aurora in 1945, complete with references to the Mr. Colour, Tamiya, and
White Ensign Colourcoats paint ranges.       

The Chungking: The Chungking kit features Aurora as she appeared in 1948 when handed over to the Nationalist Chinese forces.  As a result, the two kits are quite
similar but there are some differences which I will detail here.
Packaging: The box features a painting of Chungking on the open ocean wearing the flag of Nationalist
China. The large full colour glossy card also features the same box art and particulars of the ships service and eventual fate after her sale to China. The kit comprises
307 parts on 28 sprues with a further 81 photo-etch pieces.   

Superstructure: The aft gun deck, Part L in Chungking and Part M in Aurora, are the same dimensions but feature different deck detail.  The lattice work bracing
under the quad pompoms is replaced with a solid plate (This is labelled as part X10 in the instructions, it should be V10).
Boats and fittings: Chungking did not carry
the Type 273 radar lantern or the searchlight behind the after funnel, so those parts are not included.  The ammunition ready use lockers were also a different type on
Chungking so different sprues are provided for them. Chungking also carried fewer deck winches but more life rafts than Aurora, so there are differing numbers of
those sprues between the 2 kits.
Decals: The Decal sheet contains White Ensigns, Nationalist, and Communist Chinese ensigns, allowing the modeller to depict the ship
sporting the colours of any of the navies she served with.
Photo-Etch: The open lattice work supporting the quad pompom platforms is not included.  In its place are
supplied the Chinese characters for the ships name on the stern. Instructions:  
The instructions are not just a copy of the ones provided with Aurora with a few changes noted, but are specific to Chungking and reflect the different parts used to
assemble it.
Extras: My kit of Chungking came with a 16 page Flyhawk modellers guide for building their U-48 drydock diorama.  It is of very high quality, featuring
many photos and modelling tips.   

Overall Impression: In keeping with the standards set by their kit of HMS Naiad, Flyhawk has produced 2 superb models of this iconic British cruiser.  All the parts
are precision molded, with absolutely no flash or those lines that result when two mould halves are used to make a single component.  The fineness of detail does not
imply fragile pieces; I managed to bend the 4 gun barrels at right angles to the rest of the piece and was able to straighten them without breaking them off.  I like the
idea of not attaching the main superstructure pieces to any sprues, none of the molded on detail will be damaged during assembly. The models are 8.5 long; the amount
of detail that Flyhawk has packed in is incredible. Their product research is very comprehensive as shown by identifying the subtle changes made to
HMS Aurora
between 1945 and 1948. The kits are also very accurate based on my available references. Despite all the pieces, modellers will have no problems assembling either of
these kits. They are well-engineered and the parts will fit together very easily.  The instructions are very comprehensive and the use of colour coding will ease the
assembly of the smaller parts. More experienced modellers will find it fairly straight forward to convert either of these kits into one of her sister ships, or into an earlier
fit of
Aurora. Depending on chosen fit, they will just need to source 4 single guns, a catapult, and a Seafox. Camouflage schemes varied considerably, references and
photographs should be consulted carefully.  Flyhawk has announced
HMS Penelope for later in 2016, and it appears to be an early war version. The kits will build into
superb models right from the box. A wood deck, deck mask, and machined gun barrels are available separately from Flyhawk for
HMS Aurora. The only other item
that modellers may consider would be anchor chain. By paying careful attention to the design of the sub-assemblies, Flyhawk has been able to produce 2 distinct kits of
the same ship. No doubt each kit will find favour in its own particular market.
These are highly recommended kits, well-researched, well-engineered, and well-packaged.  Flyhawk is to be congratulated for on providing us with another class of
Royal Navy cruiser in 1/700 scale.  They are relatively new to the field of injected molded plastic kits and I am impressed that they have chosen to provide brand new
and long wished for subjects, rather than releasing ships already covered by others.  I eagerly await their next new release!  Review kits courtesy of Flyhawk Models
Rob Brown